We are able to give
you the origins of our horses names because of some of the most interesting places on the internet..Wikipedia and
Mythography, ..The descriptions found here are from these incredible encylopedias. They include the links found on the
original pages, in case you wish to delve further into some of the mythology, and fantasy behind the name.
Her mother Cassiopeia bragged that she was more beautiful than the Nereids, the nymph-daughters of the sea god Nereus and often seen accompanying Poseidon. To punish the Queen for her arrogance, Poseidon, brother to Zeus and God of the Sea, sent a sea monster called
Cetus to ravage the coast of Ethiopia and the kingdom of the vain Queen. The desperate King consulted the Ammon, the Oracle of Zeus, who announced that no respite would be found until the king sacrificed his virgin daughter Andromeda
to the monster. She was chained naked to a rock on the coast of Jaffa.
Perseus, returning from having slain the Gorgon Medusa, found Andromeda and slew the monster Cetus. He set her free, and married her in spite of Andromeda having been
previously promised to Phineus. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, and Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the
Gorgon's head (Ovid, Metamorphoses v. 1).
Andromeda followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and together they became the ancestors of the family of the Perseidae through the line of their son
Perses. Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons: Perseides, Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, and Electryon, and one daughter, Gorgophone. Their descendants ruled Mycenae from Electryon down to Eurystheus, after whom Atreus attained the kingdom, and would also include the great hero Heracles. According to this mythology, Perses is the ancestor of the Persians.
After her death, Andromeda was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia. Sophocles and Euripides (and in more modern times Corneille) made the story the subject of tragedies. The tale is represented in numerous ancient works of art.
Aphrodite in Greek Mythology
As the Greek goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite holds great power over both mortals and immortals. Therefore, it should
come as no surprise that she is featured in numerous myths, poems, and plays; likewise, there are many representations of
Aphrodite in Greek sculpture and vase painting. While several legends of Aphrodite emphasize themes of love and desire, some
of most compelling myths deal with the consequences that the goddess herself suffers as a result of being the victim of love.
The story of Aphrodite and her interlude with the human Adonis makes for an interesting study of the double edged sword that passion can be. In this myth, the vulnerability of the goddess
is poignant. This vulnerability points to the fact that in Greek mythology even the gods could suffer, and were certainly
not immune to the pains and passions that we, as humans, experience.
Birth of Aphrodite
There are a couple of versions of the birth of Aphrodite, which, although they differ, are not necessarily contradictory.
According to Homer (Iliad, Book V, 370), the goddess is simply the daughter of Zeus and Dione (a name that is merely the feminine form of Zeus in Greek). However, the poet Hesiod (Theogony, 188-198)
provides a much more elaborate explanation for her birth: he claims that the name Aphrodite is derived from aphros
or foam, and thus the goddess was born of this substance. The tale states that the Titan Kronos castrated his father Ouranos, and then cast the severed genitals into the sea. From the foam that gathered around
the member, Aphrodite emerged, fully formed. Hesiod's description, however gruesome it may seem, does have the advantage of
attaching a certain meaning to the birth of the goddess, which I leave to the reader to ascertain. At any rate, this version
also lends a poetic quality to Aphrodite's creation, in that as Anadyomene ("she who emerges"), she was depicted
by countless artists.
According to the appendices of The Return of the King, Aragorn, named after his ancestor Aragorn I, was born on March 1 in 2931 of the Third Age, the son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen. Through his ancestor Elendil (whom he closely resembled) Aragorn was a descendant
of Elros Tar-Minyatur, Master Elrond's Half-elven twin brother and the first king of Númenor. Aragorn is descended
from both of Elendil's sons, from Isildur through Arvedui, last King of Arthedain, and from Anárion through Arvedui's wife Fíriel.
When Aragorn was only two years old, his father was killed
while pursuing Orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the request of his mother, his lineage was
kept secret, as she feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as the descendant of Elendil
and Heir of Isildur became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel and was not
told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951.
Elrond revealed to "Estel" (hope in Sindarin) his true name and ancestry when he came of age, and delivered
to him the shards of Elendil's sword, Narsil, and the Ring of Barahir. He withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him until he "came of the right" to possess it. It was
also around this time that Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter, who had newly returned from her mother's
homeland of Lórien.
Aragorn thereafter assumed his proper role as the sixteenth
Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, and went into the wild, where lived the remnants of his
people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before.
Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, and they became close friends. At Gandalf's advice
he and his followers began to guard a small land known as the Shire, inhabited by the diminutive and agrarian Hobbits, and he became known among the peoples just outside the Shire's
borders as Strider.
From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving
in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan (King Théoden's father), and Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor (father of Denethor). Many of his tasks helped to raise morale in the West and
counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, and he acquired invaluable experience which
he would later put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords in disguise and his name in Gondor
and Rohan during that time was Thorongil (Eagle of the Star). With a small Gondorian squadron of ships, he led an assault
on the long-standing rebel province of Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and personally
slaying their lord during the battle on the Havens. After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field and to the dismay
of his men, went East.
Later in 2980, he visited Lórien, and there once again
met Arwen. He gave her the heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand
to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting the Gift of Men: death.
Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter
until such time as his foster son should be king of both Gondor and Arnor. To Elrond's as well as Aragorn's knowledge, in order to
marry a mortal his daughter would be required to choose mortality, and thus deprive the deathless Elrond of his daughter while
the world lasted. Elrond was also concerned for Arwen's own happiness, fearing that in the end she might find death (her own
and that of her beloved) too difficult to bear.
Before the events of The Lord of the Rings proper
take place, Aragorn also travelled through the Dwarven mines of Moria, and to Harad, where (in his own words) "the stars are strange". Tolkien
does not specify when these travels occurred.
In 3009, Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging
to the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins, which later turned out to be the One Ring, the core of the Dark Lord Sauron's evil power. Aragorn went at his request into Rhovanion in search of Gollum, who had once possessed the Ring. He caught the creature
in the Dead Marshes near Mordor, and brought him as a captive to Thranduil's halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
Athena in Greek Mythology
Much has been written about the goddess Athena. As the
patron deity of the city of Athens, she played an enormous role in the lives of not only the residents of that illustrious
polis (Greek for city), but in many respects all of the Greek speaking world. Our oldest sources of Greek literature
- the works of Homer and Hesiod - discuss Athena. The goddess appears in several
significant passages of Homer's Iliad, and she is one of the most influential deities in the Odyssey in her
role as Odysseus's patron and ally. Therefore, Athena's attributes were codified early in the epics and poetry of Greece:
she was the divine sponsor of warriors and heroes, she introduced several of the arts and crafts necessary for civilization,
and she represented wisdom. Obviously, the goddess played a prominent role in Greek mythology.
Nike means "Victory" in Greek, and Athena was worshiped in this form, as goddess
of victory, on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Her temple was the earliest Ionic temple on the Acropolis, compensated
by its prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance . There
the citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in the long war fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies. The Temple of Athena Nike was an expression
of Athens' ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the Peloponnese. The Temple sits within the sanctuary of Athena Nike, atop
a bastion on the south flank of the great stair to the Athenian Acropolis. In contrast to the Acropolis proper, a walled sanctuary
entered through the Propylaia, the Nike Sanctuary was open, entered from the Propylaia's
southwest wing and from a narrow stair on the north. The sheer walls of its bastion were protected on the north, west, and
south by a parapet, the famed "Nike Parapet", named for its frieze of Nikai celebrating victory and sacrificing to their patroness, Athena.
In The Lord of the Rings Éowyn, a daughter of the House of Eorl and the niece of King Théoden, is introduced in Meduseld, the king's hall at Edoras. She was the daughter of Théodwyn (sister to Théoden) and Éomund, and the sister of Éomer. When she was only three years old, her father was killed
fighting Orcs and her mother died of grief. Éowyn and Éomer were raised
in her uncle's household as if they were his own children.
Tolkien writes she fell into depression since she longed
to win renown in battle - more so because she was noble - but being female, her duties were reckoned to be at Edoras. When
Théoden's mind was poisoned by his adviser Gríma Wormtongue, Éowyn was obliged to care for her uncle, and his deterioration
pained her deeply. To make matters worse, she was stalked by Gríma.
However, when Gandalf (along with Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli) arrived, he healed Théoden from Wormtongue's corruption,
and Éowyn became infatuated with Aragorn. It soon became clear that Aragorn could not return her love
(though he did not mention his betrothal to Arwen), and would not allow her to join him in going to war. As
Aragorn pointed out, her duty was with her people; she had to shoulder the responsibility of ruling Rohan in Théoden's stead
of when the war-host of Rohan went to war. Aragorn also said her duties were no less valiant. Likening her situation to a
"cage", Éowyn said she feared
"...[t]o stay behind bars, until use and old age accept
them, and all chance of great deeds is gone beyond recall or desire."
Frustrated by unrequited love for Aragorn and longing for death in battle, she disguised
herself as a man and under the alias of Dernhelm, travelled with the Riders of Rohan to the Battle of the Pelennor Fields outside the White City of Minas Tirith in Gondor, carrying with her Merry, who had also been ordered to remain behind.
During the battle of the Pelennor Fields, she confronted the Witch-king of Angmar, Lord of the Nazgûl, after Théoden was injured. The Witch-king boasted that "no
living man can slay me," referring to the 1,000-year-old prophecy by the Elf-lord Glorfindel, foretelling that the Witch-king would not "fall by the hand
of man". Éowyn then removed her helmet and declared:
- "I am no man!."
The Witch-king was distracted by Merry, who stabbed him
behind the knee, and Éowyn seized the opportunity to strike a killing blow, stabbing him "between crown and mantle".
Éowyn was severely injured in this fight (her shield-arm
was broken) and believed dead until Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth realized she still lived. Because of the poisonous effect
of the Black Breath of the Nazgûl and her hopeless love for Aragorn, she faced near-certain death and was brought up to the
Houses of Healing together with Merry. However, she was treated
in time by Aragorn. Éomer, while not blaming Aragorn, believed that unrequited love was at the root of her depression. Aragorn
answered that she loved Éomer more truly than himself, as her feeling for Aragorn was largely fantasy about the idea
of Aragorn as a great leader and warrior representing the heroic life she could not have; and Gandalf pointed out the deeper
roots of her depression.
While recuperating in the Houses of Healing, she met Faramir, with whom she soon fell in love, understanding that her
previous "love" for Aragorn was more of hero-worship. Her outlook on life also changes:
"Then the heart of Éowyn changed, or else she understood
it... ...'I will be a shieldmaiden no longer, nor vie with the great Riders, nor take joy only in the songs of slaying.
I will be a healer, and love all things that grow and are not barren.' "
After the demise of Sauron, the happily wedded couple settled in Ithilien, of which Faramir was made the ruling Prince by King Elessar
(the name with which Aragorn ascended the throne of the Reunited Kingdom). Faramir and Éowyn had at least one son (likely
Elboron), and their grandson was Barahir, who wrote The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen in the Fourth Age. Tolkien nowhere gives the cause and date of Éowyn's death.
Éowyn is described to be very beautiful; she was tall,
slim, pale, and graceful, with long golden hair. In temperament she was idealistic, spirited, brave, high-minded, and lonely.
The Alphabet of Ben Sira is considered to be the oldest form of the story of Lilith
as Adam's first wife. Whether this particular tradition is older is not known. Scholars tend to date Ben Sira between the
8th and 10th centuries CE. Its real author is anonymous, but it is falsely attributed to the sage Ben Sira. The amulets used against Lilith that were thought to derive
from this tradition are in fact, dated as being much older.The concept of Eve having a predecessor is not exclusive to Ben
Sira, and is not a new concept, as it can be found in Genesis Rabbah. However, the idea that Lilith was the predecessor
is exclusive to Sira. According to Gershom Scholem, the author of the Zohar, R. Moses de Leon, was aware of the folk tradition
of Lilith. He was also aware of another story, possibly older, that may be conflicting.
The idea that Adam had a wife prior to Eve may have developed
from an interpretation of the Book of Genesis and its dual creation accounts; while Genesis 2:22 describes
God's creation of Eve from Adam's rib, an earlier passage, 1:27, already indicates that a woman had been made: "So God created
man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." The text places Lilith's creation
after God's words in Genesis 2:18 that "it is not good for man to be alone". He forms Lilith out of the clay from which he
made Adam, but the two bicker. Lilith claims that since she and Adam were created in the same way, they were equal, and she
refuses to submit to him:
After God created Adam, who was alone, He said, 'It is
not good for man to be alone.' He then created a woman for Adam, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself, and called
her Lilith. Adam and Lilith immediately began to fight. She said, 'I will not lie below,' and he said, 'I will not lie beneath
you, but only on top. For you are fit only to be in the bottom position, while I am to be the superior one.' Lilith responded,
'We are equal to each other inasmuch as we were both created from the earth.' But they would not listen to one another. When
Lilith saw this, she pronounced the Ineffable Name and flew away into the air.
Adam stood in prayer before his Creator:
'Sovereign of the universe!' he said, 'the woman you gave me has run away.' At once, the Holy One, blessed be He, sent these
three angels Senoy, Sansenoy, and Semangelof, to bring her back.
Said the Holy One to Adam, 'If
she agrees to come back, what is made is good. If not, she must permit one hundred of her children to die every day.' The
angels left God and pursued Lilith, whom they overtook in the midst of the sea, in the mighty waters wherein the Egyptians
were destined to drown. They told her God's word, but she did not wish to return. The angels said, 'We shall drown you in
'Leave me!' she said. 'I was created only to cause sickness to infants. If the infant is male, I have
dominion over him for eight days after his birth, and if female, for twenty days.’
When the angels heard Lilith's
words, they insisted she go back. But she swore to them by the name of the living and eternal God: 'Whenever I see you or
your names or your forms in an amulet, I will have no power over that infant.' She also agreed to have one hundred of her
children die every day. Accordingly, every day one hundred demons perish, and for the same reason, we write the angels' names
on the amulets of young children. When Lilith sees their names, she remembers her oath, and the child recovers.
Malaika was named by Sandra Younge, her breeder, who
told us that she was named for a song her brother enjoyed
Malaika, which means "angel" in Swahili, was a song first recorded by Kenyan musician Fadhili William and his band Jambo Boys in 1960. Authorship of the song is often attributed to Fadhili
William, but that is somewhat disputed.
It was later re-recorded at Equator Sound Studios by the British-born Kenyan music promoter Charles Worrod, who marketed the ballad to eventually becoming an internationally
acclaimed song. The song went on to be popularised by international artists such as Helmut Lotti, Hep Stars, Rocco Granata, Miriam Makeba, Harry Belafonte, Pete Seeger, Boney M and Angélique Kidjo.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
(March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility
in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal
Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
Michelangelo's output in every field during his long life
was prodigious; when the sheer volume of correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences
that survive is also taken into account, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. Two of his best-known works,
the Pietà and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty. Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo
also created two of the most influential works in fresco in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Later in life he designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in the same city and revolutionised classical architecture
with his use of the giant order of pilasters.
In a demonstration of Michelangelo's unique standing, he
was the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive.Two biographies were published of him during
his lifetime; one of them, by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all artistic achievement
since the beginning of the Renaissance, a viewpoint that continued to have currency in art history
for centuries. In his lifetime he was also often called Il Divino ("the divine one"). One of the qualities most admired
by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, and it was the attempts of subsequent
artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned and highly personal style that resulted in the next major movement in Western
art after the High Renaissance, Mannerism.
The name Oberon got its literary start in the first half of the
13th century from the fairy dwarf Oberon that helps the hero in the chanson de geste, titled Les Prouesses et faitz du noble Huon de Bordeaux. When Huon, son of Seguin count of Bordeaux, passed through the forest where he lives, he was warned against Oberon by a hermit, but his courtesy had him answer Oberon's greetings, and so gain his aid in his quest: having killed Charlot, the Emperor's son, in self-defense, Huon must visit the court of the amir of Babylon and perform various feats to win a pardon, and only with Oberon's aid does he succeed.
This elf appears dwarfish in height, though very handsome;
he explains that at his christening, an offended fairy cursed him to the height (an example of the wicked fairy godmother folklore motif), but relented and as compensation
gave him great beauty. As Alberich features as a dwarf in the Nibelungen, the dwarfish height was thus explained.
Xenophon (Ancient Greek Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn;
Modern Greek "Ξενοφών", Xenophōn;
"Ξενοφώντας", Xenophōntas; ca. 430 - 354 BC), son of Gryllus,
of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens and Xenophon
of Thebes, was a soldier, mercenary and a contemporary and admirer of Socrates. He is known for his writings on the history of his own times, preserving the sayings of Socrates, and the life of ancient Greece.
On Horsemanship (Ἱππαρχικὸς
ἢ περὶ ἱππικῆς) written c. 350 BC by Xenophon is one of the earliest extant treatises on horsemanship in the Western world (the oldest is the one written by Kikkuli of the Indo-Aryan Mitanni Kingdom). In it, Xenophon details the selection, care, and
training of horses for the use both in the military and for general use. One of the most important qualities
in a horse, Xenophon writes, is that it have a fleshy (or "double") back. This presumably is due to the fact that Xenophon
wrote this treatise before the invention of the saddle.
Xenophon's On Horsemanship is one of the oldest
surviving Western works detailing the principles of classical dressage, including training the horse in a manner that is non-abusive.
In On Horsemanship, Xenopohon himself pays tribute
to better established works by apparently more celebrated contemporary horsemen -- in particular, a trainer and writer referred
to only as "Simon" -- but no known copies of these other texts have survived into the modern era.
Part I: Selecting
a Young Horse
Xenophon details what is to be examined
when inspecting a horse to buy as a war-mount. He is especially careful to stress the importance of soundness. His recommendations
- A hoof of thick horn, and a frog that is held off the ground.
- Pasterns that are not too straight and upright, as these will jar
the rider and are more likely to become sore, nor too long and low, as they will strike the ground when galloping and will
be cut on rocks.
- Thick cannon bones
- Good bend in the knees, as the horse is less likely to
stumble or to break down
- Thick and muscular forearms
- Broad chest, for both beauty and because the legs will
be less likely to interfere
- A neck that is high-set and carried upward. Xenophon believed
this would allow the horse to better see what was in front of him, and also make him less able to overpower the rider, because
it would be more difficult to put his head down.
- A bony head with a small jawbone, a soft mouth, and prominent
eyes for good vision
- Large nostrils, for good respiration and a fiercer appearance
- A large crest and small ears
- Tall withers, to help hold the rider on, and to give a
good attachment between the shoulder and the body
- A "double spine" (fleshy back), which is softer and more
comfortable, as well as prettier
- A deep, rounded side, which allows the rider to stay on
more easily, and allows the horse to better digest his food
- Broad, short loins, allowing the horse to raise the forehand
and engage the hindend (Xenophon describes the ability to collect), and are stronger than long loins.
- The hindquarters should be muscular and firm, for speed
- The gaskins and buttocks should be well separated, so
the horse stands wide behind, allowing him to be more balanced, and to give a prouder bearing
Xenophon then directs the reader to look at a young colt's
cannons to predict his height.
It is interesting to note that many of Xenophon's suggestions
are still applied today when selecting a sport horse.